## What are game events

Previously, we have generated random floats between 0 to 1 using the generateFloats and byteGenerator functions. Game events translate these floats generated into actual game outcomes. This happens in different ways for different games. In Plinko, floats help to determine the direction of the ball drop. In Dice, floats help to determine the outcome of the dice roll.

Below is a detailed explanation of how we translate floats into fair events or outcome for every original game we have on our platform.

## Plinko

In Plinko the Players can choose between a pyramid of height 8 to 16. As the ball is released from the top, it will either fall left of right 8 to 16 times every time it hits a pin on the Plinko board. The game event in Plinko is to determine if the ball falls left or right at every level, represented by 0 and 1.

// Create multiple floats between 0 and 1

// Example: floats = [0.8320531346835196, 0.8531235849950463, 0.18227359023876488, 0.774284637067467, 0.18627392360940576, 0.6012540922965854, 0.608081541955471, 0.46018488449044526] when clientSeed='abc', serverSeed='def', nonce=1, count=8

// count refers to the number of plinko rows

const floats = generateFloats({ serverSeed, clientSeed, nonce, cursor, count });

// Example: [1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0] Each 1 represents a drop to the right whereas 0 represents a drop to the left

const dropDirections = floats.map(val => Math.floor(val * 2));

// This sums up all the values in the array to get the final position of the ball from the left.

// Example: finalPositionFromLeft = 5 (the ball will land on the 6th slot from the left)

const finalPositionFromLeft = dropDirections.reduce((cur, acc) => cur + acc, 0)

## Dice

In dice, a roll of the dice can be between the values of 0.00 to 100.00. The game event in Dice is to determine this value. We do this by using the (floats * 10,001) / 100). As we include values up to 2 decimal places, and the number 0, there are a total of 10,000 + 1 = 10,001 possible outcomes (including decimal places).

// Creates an array of random numbers

// Example: With clientSeed = 'abc', serverSeed = 'def', nonce = 1, floats = [0.43053962965495884]

const floats = generateFloats({ serverSeed, clientSeed, nonce, cursor: 0, count: 1 });

// Converts the value in the array to a number between 0.00 to 100.00 and return the value

// Example: resultValue = [43.05]

const resultValue = floats.map(val => Math.floor(floats * 10001) / 100);

return resultValue[0];

// Example: 43.05 is returned as the result of the game

## Limbo

In limbo, the goal of the game is to guess a multiplier >1. If the game result is greater than the multiplier, the user wins the game. The game event is to generate a float value that is above 1 and follows a hyperbolaic curve distribution.

// Generate float between 0 and 1

// Example: floats = [0.43053962965495884], float = 0.43053962965495884,

// when clientSeed='abc', serverSeed='def', nonce=1

const floats = generateFloats({ serverSeed, clientSeed, nonce, cursor: 0, count: 1 });

const float = floats[0]

// generate limbo game event results with house edge (1%)

// using a hyperbolic 1/x curve

// multiplying by this and dividing by (MAX_VALUE + 1) prevents division by 0 error

const MAX_VALUE = 2 ** 24;

const rtp = 0.99;

// Example: rawValue = 2.298905

const rawValue = (rtp * MAX_VALUE) / (MAX_VALUE * float + 1)

// resultValue = 2.29

const resultValue = (0.99 * MAX_VALUE / (MAX_VALUE * float +1)).toFixed(2,ROUND_DOWN);

return resultValue;

## Keno

In Keno, the game event requires the identification of 10 unique gem placements on the keno board. To achieve this, we generate 10 different floats between 1 to 40., representing each location on the keno board. Then a is used to handle duplicated floats and return the final 10 gem locations

// Generate 10 different floats as there are 10 positions that are selected when the game is played

// Example: floats = [18, 26, 7, 22, 31, 10, 23, 8, 24, 13] when clientSeed='abc', serverSeed='def', nonce=1

const floats = generateFloats({ serverSeed, clientSeed, nonce, cursor: 0, count: 10 }) .map((val, index) => Math.ceil(val * (40 - index)))

// array used to store the position of the gems const gemLocations: number[] = [];

// this loop helps to prevent duplicate gem positions by skipping positions that already contain a gem

for (const val of floats) { let currentGem = val;

let i = 0;

while (i <= currentGem) {

if (gemLocations.includes(i)) {

currentGem++;

}

i++;

}

gemLocations.push(currentGem);

}

// returns the location of the gem on the board

// Example: [18, 27, 7, 24, 35, 11, 28, 9, 31, 16] return gemLocations;

## Mines

In Mines, the game event requires the identification of mines placement on the 25 tiled mines board. Based on the user selection of a number of mines, we generate a list of integers from 0 to 24 to represent the 25 spaces on the board.

// Generate 10 different floats

// Example: [20, 20, 4] when clientSeed='abc', serverSeed='def', nonce=1, numberOfBombs=3

const floats = generateFloats({ serverSeed, clientSeed, nonce, cursor: 0, count: numberOfBombs })

.map((val, index) => Math.floor(val * (25 - index)));

// array used to store the position of the bombs

const mineLocations: number[] = [];

// this loop helps to prevent duplicate bomb positions by skipping positions that already contain a mine

for (const val of floats) {

let currentMine = val;

let i = 0;

while (i <= currentMine) {

if (mineLocations.includes(i)) {

currentMine++;

} i++; } mineLocations.push(currentMine); }

// returns the location of the bombs on the board

// Example: [20, 21, 4]

return mineLocations;

**Roulette**

Our Roulette is based on the European style single ‘0’ wheel where there are 37 different pockets ranging from 0 to 36. The game event in roulette is to calculate the pockets from the 37 pockets in which the ball will land.

// Generate a float between 0 and 1

// Example: floats = [0.43053962965495884]

const floats = generateFloats({serverSeed, clientSeed, nonce, cursor: 0, count: 1 });

// generate an integer from 0 to 37 to represent the pocket to land on

// Example: resultValue = 15

const resultValue = floats.map(val => Math.floor(val * 37))[0];

return resultValue

## Wheel

In Wheel, a user will select the number of segments the wheel has. Depending on which segment the pointer stops, the user will win the multiplier at the segment. The game event is to determine the segment.

// Generate a float between 0 and 1

// Example: floats = [0.43053962965495884]

const floats = generateFloats({serverSeed, clientSeed, nonce, cursor, count:1 });

// Get an integer representing the number of segments set in the game

// Example: resultSegment = 8

const resultSegment = floats.map(val => Math.floor(val * numberOfSegments))[0];

return resultSegment

## Blackjack

In blackjack, the game is played with an unlimited card deck. Hence each turn will always have the same probability. The game event in Blackjack is to determine the card being drawn if the player or the banker draws a card from the deck.

// Generate a float between 0 and 1

// Example: floats = [0.43053962965495884, 0.6645898742135614, 0.17454026662744582, 0.5729992990382016, 0.850033157505095] (52 elements are generated but only 5 are shown here for brevity)

const floats = generateFloats({serverSeed, clientSeed, nonce, cursor, count:52 });

const CARDS = [ ♦2, ♥2, ♠2, ♣2, ♦3, ♥3, ♠3, ♣3, ♦4, ♥4, ♠4, ♣4, ♦5, ♥5, ♠5, ♣5, ♦6, ♥6, ♠6, ♣6, ♦7, ♥7, ♠7, ♣7, ♦8, ♥8, ♠8, ♣8, ♦9, ♥9, ♠9, ♣9, ♦10, ♥10, ♠10, ♣10, ♦J, ♥J, ♠J, ♣J, ♦Q, ♥Q, ♠Q, ♣Q, ♦K, ♥K, ♠K, ♣K, ♦A, ♥A, ♠A, ♣A

];

// Get an integer 0 to 51, representing the index of the cards

// Example: cardFloats = [22, 34, 9, 29, 44]

const cardFloats = floats.map(val => Math.floor(val * 52));

// Example: cards = [♠7, ♠10, ♥4, ♥9, ♦K]

const cards = cardFloats.map(val => CARDS[val])

return cards;

## Hilo

In Hilo, the game is played with an unlimited card deck Hence each turn will always have the same probability. the objective of the game is to guess if the next card is of higher or lower value than the existing card. The game event in Hilo is to determine which card a user draws next (if drawn).

// Generate a float between 0 and 1

// Example: floats = [0.43053962965495884, 0.6645898742135614, 0.17454026662744582, 0.5729992990382016, 0.850033157505095] (an unlimited number of cards can be drawn but only 5 are shown here for brevity)

const floats = generateFloats({serverSeed, clientSeed, nonce, cursor, count:52 });

const CARDS = [

♦2, ♥2, ♠2, ♣2, ♦3, ♥3, ♠3, ♣3, ♦4, ♥4, ♠4, ♣4, ♦5, ♥5, ♠5, ♣5, ♦6, ♥6, ♠6, ♣6, ♦7, ♥7, ♠7, ♣7, ♦8, ♥8, ♠8, ♣8, ♦9, ♥9, ♠9, ♣9, ♦10, ♥10, ♠10, ♣10, ♦J, ♥J, ♠J, ♣J, ♦Q, ♥Q, ♠Q, ♣Q, ♦K, ♥K, ♠K, ♣K, ♦A, ♥A, ♠A, ♣A

];

// Get an integer 0 to 51, representing the index of the cards

// Example: cardFloats = [22, 34, 9, 29, 44]

const cardFloats = floats.map(val => Math.floor(val * 52));

// Example: cards = [♠7, ♠10, ♥4, ♥9, ♦K]

const cards = cardFloats.map(val => CARDS[val])

return cards;

## Crash

There are 2 parts to the calculation of the result of a crash game

Bitcoin block hash

Seed

## Bitcoin Hash

Details are in this tweet:

The hash of block 779588 can be found on the BTC block explorer (https://www.blockchain.com/explorer/blocks/btc/779588), and matches the hash that is shown in the tweet.

## Seed

The process for generating seeds for 10 million crash games is designed to ensure fairness and transparency, preventing any possibility of manipulation by Shuffle. Here’s how seeds are generated and verified:

**Initial Seed Generation**: The seed for the 10 millionth game is randomly chosen by Shuffle.**Sequential Hashing for Seed Generation**: To generate the seeds for all other games, we use a backward hashing method:The seed for each game is the result of hashing the seed of the subsequent game. Specifically, the seed for the 9,999,999th game is the SHA256 hash of the 10 millionth game’s seed.

This chaining continues such that each game’s seed is derived from hashing the next game’s seed, culminating in the first game's seed being derived from the second game’s seed.

**Verification of Seed Integrity**:By publishing the hashed value of the seed used in the first game, players can independently verify the integrity of the seeds for all games up to the 10 millionth game.

Using this method, if you know the seed for any specific game, you can verify the seeds for all previous games. For example, if you know the seed of game 1323185, you can hash this seed to verify that it matches the seed of game 1323184, and so on, back to the first game.

For example, in game 1323185 (https://shuffle.com/games/originals/crash?md-id=1323185&modal=crashGame), the seed is 2f824ebb9548a4d24d042ecab390acd1dc931048f696dc03c738937852825ac0

In game 1323184 (https://shuffle.com/games/originals/crash?md-id=1323184&modal=crashGame), the seed is 20f42ccc46fed8e005767f85eb4bd5d42d3bd2a72b01ae77dcc7071bec280265

The seed value of game 1323184 is the SHA256 hash of the seed of 1323185. You can use an online SHA256 calculator like https://xorbin.com/tools/sha256-hash-calculator to verify this

**Transparency and Security**:By using a future BTC block hash which is out of the control of Shuffle and publishing the hashed version of the seed of first game, users are can prove that crash game results are fair and were untampered.